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Exam A
QUESTION 1
Certkiller uses layer 3 switches in the Core of their network. Which method of Layer 3 switching uses a forwarding information base (FIB)?
A. Topology-based switching
B. Demand-based switching
C. Route caching
D. Flow-based switching
E. None of the above
Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The Layer 3 engine (essentially a router) maintains routing information, whether from static routes or dynamic routing protocols. Basically, the routing table is reformatted into an ordered list with the most specific route first, for each IP destination subnet in the table. The new format is called a Forwarding Information Base (FIB) and contains routing or forwarding information that the network prefix can reference. In other words, a route to 10.1.0.0/16 might be contained in the FIB, along with routes to 10.1.1.0/24 and 10.1.1.128/25, if those exist. Notice that these examples are increasingly more specific subnets. In the FIB, these would be ordered with the most specific, or longest match, first, followed by less specific subnets. When the switch receives a packet, it can easily examine the destination address and find the longest match entry in the FIB. The FIB also contains the next-hop address for each entry. When a longest match entry is found in the FIB, the Layer 3 next-hop address is found, too.
QUESTION 2
You need to design the VLAN scheme for the Certkiller network. Which two statements are true about best practices in VLAN design? (Select two)
A. Routing should occur at the access layer if voice VLANs are utilized. Otherwise, routing should occur at the distribution layer.
B. Routing should always be performed at the distribution layer.
C. VLANs should be localized to a switch.
D. VLANs should be localized to a single switch unless voice VLANs are being utilized.
E. Routing should not be performed between VLANs located on separate switches.
Correct Answer: BC Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
In the distribution layer, uplinks from all access layer devices are aggregated, or come together. The
distribution layer switches must be capable of processing the total volume of traffic from all the connected
devices. These switches should have a port density of high-speed links to support the collection of access
layer switches.
VLANs and broadcast domains converge at the distribution layer, requiring routing,

filtering, and security. The switches at this layer must be capable of performing multilayer switching with
high throughput. Only certain Catalyst switch models can provide multilayer switching; be sure to
understand which ones can do this.
A switched environment offers the technology to overcome flat network limitations.
Switched networks can be subdivided into VLANs. By definition, a VLAN is a single broadcast domain. All
devices connected to the VLAN receive broadcasts from other VLAN members. However, devices
connected to a different VLAN will not receive those same broadcasts. (Naturally, VLAN members also

receive unicast packets directed toward them from other VLAN members.) A VLAN consists of defined members communicating as a logical network segment. In contrast, a physical segment consists of devices that must be connected to a physical cable segment. A VLAN can have connected members located anywhere in the campus network, as long as VLAN connectivity is provided between all members. Layer 2 switches are configured with a VLAN mapping and provide the logical connectivity between the VLAN members.
QUESTION 3
The Certkiller la network is shown below:

On the basis of the information provided in the exhibit above, which two sets of procedures are best practices for Layer 2 and 3 failover alignment? (Select two)
A. Configure the Certkiller 1 switch as the standby HSRP router and the STP root for VLANs 11 and 110. Configure the Certkiller 2 switch as the standby HSRP router and the STP root for VLANs 12 and 120.
B. Configure the Certkiller 1 switch as the active HSRP router and the backup STP root for VLANs 11 and
110. Configure the Certkiller 2 switch as the active HSRP router and the backup STP root for VLANs 12 and 120.
C. Configure the Certkiller 2 switch as the active HSRP router and the STP root for all VLANs. Configure the Certkiller 1 switch as the standby HSRP router and backup STP root for all VLANs.
D. Configure the Certkiller 1 switch as the active HSRP router and the STP root for all VLANs. Configure the Certkiller 2 switch as the standby HSRP router and backup STP root for all VLANs.
E. Configure the Certkiller 1 switch as the standby HSRP router and the backup STP root for VLANs 12 and 120. Configure the Certkiller 2 switch as the standby HSRP router and the backup STP root for VLANs 11 and 110.
F. Configure the Certkiller 1 switch as the active HSRP router and the STP root for VLANs 11 and 110. Configure the Certkiller 2 switch as the active HSRP router and the STP root for VLANs 12 and 120.
Correct Answer: EF Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Basically, each of the routers that provides redundancy for a given gateway address is assigned to a common HSRP group. One router is elected as the primary, or active, HSRP router, another is elected as the standby HSRP router, and all the others remain in the listen HSRP state. The routers exchange HSRP hello messages at regular intervals, so they can remain aware of each other’s existence, as well as that of the active router. HSRP election is based on a priority value (0 to 255) that is configured on each router in the group. By default, the priority is 100. The router with the highest priority value (255 is highest) becomes the active router for the group. If all router priorities are equal or set to the default value, the router with the highest IP address on the HSRP interface becomes the active router. To set the priority, use the following interface configuration command: Switch(config-if)# standby group priority priority When HSRP is configured on an interface, the router progresses through a series of states before becoming active. This forces a router to listen for others in a group and see where it fits into the pecking order. The HSRP state sequence is Disabled, Init, Listen, Speak, Standby, and, finally, Active. You can configure a router to preempt or immediately take over the active role if its priority is the highest at any time. Use the following interface configuration command to allow preemption: Switch(config-if)# standby group preempt [delay seconds]
QUESTION 4
The Certkiller LAN switches are being configured to support the use of Dynamic VLANs. Which of the following are true of dynamic VLAN membership? (Select all that apply)
A. VLAN membership of a user always remains the same even when he/she is moved to another location.
B. VLAN membership of a user always changes when he/she is moved to another location.
C. Membership can be static or dynamic.
D. Membership can be static only.
E. None of the above.
Correct Answer: AC Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Dynamic VLAN memberships are based on the users MAC address connected to the port. If you have VTP
server, a VTP database file, a VTP client switch, and a dynamic port; regardless of where your physical
location is, you can still remain in the same VLAN.
Incorrect
Answers:

B: This was true before the use of Dynamic VLAN membership, as VLANs were assigned to ports, not users.
D: VLAN memberships can be either static or dynamic.
QUESTION 5
The Certkiller LAN switches are being configured to support the use of Dynamic VLANs. What should be considered when implementing a dynamic VLAN solution? (Select two)
A. Each switch port is assigned to a specific VLAN.
B. Dynamic VLANs require a VLAN Membership Policy Server.
C. Devices are in the same VLAN regardless of which port they attach to.
D. Dynamic VLAN assignments are made through the command line interface.
Correct Answer: BC Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: With VLAN Membership Policy Server (VMPS), you can assign switch ports to VLANs dynamically, based on the source Media Access Control (MAC) address of the device connected to the port. When you move a host from a port on one switch in the network to a port on another switch in the network, the switch assigns the new port to the proper VLAN for that host dynamically. Note: There are two types of VLAN port configurations: static and dynamic. Incorrect Answers
A: In a static VLAN, the administrator assigns switch ports to the VLAN, and the association does not
change until the administrator changes the port assignment.
However, this is not the case of dynamic VLANs.

D: The Command Line Interface is not used for dynamic VLAN assignments.
Reference: Cisco Online, Configuring Dynamic Port VLAN Membership with VMPS

QUESTION 6
What is the preferred method of filtering bridged traffic within a VLAN?
A. Ethernet maps
B. Router ACLs
C. VLAN access maps
D. IP ACLs
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: VLAN ACLs or VLAN maps access-control all packets (bridged and routed). You can use VLAN maps to filter traffic between devices in the same VLAN. Each VLAN access map can consist of one or more map sequences, each sequence with a match clause and an action clause. The match clause specifies IP, IPX, or MAC ACLs for traffic filtering and the action clause specifies the action to be taken when a match occurs. When a flow matches a permit ACL entry, the associated action is taken and the flow is not checked against the remaining sequences. When a flow matches a deny ACL entry, it will be checked against the next ACL in the same sequence or the next sequence. If a flow does not match any ACL entry and at least one ACL is configured for that packet type, the packet is denied. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/switches/ps708/ products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a008016
QUESTION 7
You are assigning VLANs to the ports of switch CK1 . What VLAN number value is an assigned to the default VLAN?
A. VLAN 1003
B. VLAN 1
C. VLAN ON
D. VLAN A
E. VLAN 0
Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The default VLAN is VLAN 1. Although this VLAN can be modified, it can not be deleted from the switch.
The following VLANs are on by default for all Cisco Catalyst switches: VLAN 1 – Default VLAN VLAN 1002

-Default FDDI VLAN VLAN 1003 – Default Token Ring VLAN VLAN 1004 – Default FDDI Net VLAN VLAN 1005 – Default Token Ring Net VLAN Incorrect Answers: A: This is the default Token Ring VLAN that is installed in the switch IOS. It is seldom used.
C: ON is a VTP configuration mode, but is not a normal VLAN name.
D: Although any VLAN can be named VLAN A, it is not created by default.
E: Although in Cisco IOS the number 0 has significance (i.e. ethernet 0, console port 0, serial 0) in VLANs 1 is the default. VLAN 0 is an invalid VLAN and can not be used.
QUESTION 8
The VLANs in switch CK1 are being modified. Which of the following are updated in CK1 every time a VLAN is modified? (Select all that apply)
A. Configuration revision number
B. Configuration revision flag field
C. Configuration revision reset switch
D. Configuration revision database
E. None of the above.
Correct Answer: AD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
For accountability reasons, every time a VLAN is modified the revision number changes, as does the
information in the configuration revision database (as that is where the VLAN information is stored).
Incorrect
Answers:
B, C: The configuration revision flag field, and the configuration revision reset switch don’t exist in this
context.

QUESTION 9
If you needed to transport traffic coming from multiple VLANs (connected between switches), and your CTO was insistent on using an open standard, which protocol would you use?
A. 802.11B
B. spanning-tree
C. 802.1Q
D. ISL
E. VTP
F. Q.921
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The act involved in the above question is trunking. The two trunking protocols in the answer choices are:
802.1Q and ISL. ISL is Cisco proprietary and IEEE 802.1Q is based on an open standard. When non-
Cisco switches are used along with Cisco switches and trunking is required, it is best to use the 802.1Q
encapsulation.
Incorrect
Answers:

A: This standard is used in wireless networking and has nothing to do with VLAN switching.
B: The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is used to prevent loops within a bridged network.
Each VLAN runs a separate instance of the STP and this is enabled by default.
D: This is the alternative Cisco proprietary method of trunking.
E: VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is a Layer 2 messaging protocol that manages the addition, deletion, and renaming of VLANs on a network-wide basis. It is not used to actually transport VLAN traffic.
F: This is an ISDN signaling standard and is not related with VLAN switching.
QUESTION 10
Under what circumstances should an administrator prefer local VLANs over end-to-end VLANs?
A. Eighty percent of traffic on the network is destined for Internet sites.
B. There are common sets of traffic filtering requirements for workgroups located in multiple buildings.
C. Eighty percent of a workgroup’s traffic is to the workgroup’s own local server.
D. Users are grouped into VLANs independent of physical location.
E. None of the above
Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: This geographic location can be as large as an entire building or as small as a single switch inside a wiring closet. In a geographic VLAN structure, it is typical to find 80 percent of the traffic remote to the user (server farms and so on) and 20 percent of the traffic local to the user (local server, printers, and so on). Reference: Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (Cisco Press) page 93
QUESTION 11
What are some virtues of implementing end-to-end VLANs? (Choose two)
A. End-to-end VLANs are easy to manage.
B. Users are grouped into VLANs independent of a physical location.
C. Each VLAN has a common set of security and resource requirements for all members.
D. Resources are restricted to a single location.
Correct Answer: BC Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
In an end-to-end VLAN, users are grouped into VLANs independent of physical location and dependent on
group or job function.
Each VLAN has a common set of security requirements for all members.
Incorrect
Answers:

A: End to end VLANs are more difficult to manage than local VLANs, due to the physical distances that they can span.
D: In an end-to-end VLAN, network resources are generally distributed across the entire enterprise wide area network.
QUESTION 12
Which of the following statements is true about the 80/20 rule (Select all that apply)?
A. 20 percent of the traffic on a network segment should be local
B. no more than 20 percent of the network traffic should be able to move across a backbone.
C. no more than 80 percent of the network traffic should be able to move across a backbone.
D. 80 percent of the traffic on a network segment should be local
Correct Answer: BD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The 80/20 rule in network design originated from the idea that most of the traffic should remain local to the LAN, since bandwidth is plentiful compared to WAN links, and a great deal of broadcast traffic that is evident at the LAN is not passed over the backbone. Note: With the availability of inexpensive bandwidth and centralized data centers, this rule appears to have become obsolete. In fact, most networks have taken on the 20/80 rules, as opposed to the legacy 80/20 rule.
QUESTION 13
Which two factors give merit to the 20/80 LAN traffic model? (Select two)
A. The Internet
B. Local servers
C. Server farms
D. Localized applications
E. More powerful desktop PC’s
Correct Answer: AC Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Remote services (server farms, Internet, etc.) are factors which contributed to increased backbone traffic.
Also consider:
This geographic location can be as large as an entire building or as small as a single switch inside a wiring
closet. In a geographic VLAN structure, it is typical to find 80 percent of the traffic remote to the user
(server farms and so on) and 20 percent of the traffic local to the user (local server, printers, and so on).
Reference: Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (Cisco Press) page 93

QUESTION 14
The Certkiller LAN is becoming saturated with broadcasts and multicast traffic.
What could you do to help a network with many multicasts and broadcasts?
A. Creating smaller broadcast domains by implementing VLANs.
B. Separate nodes into different hubs.
C. Creating larger broadcast domains by implementing VLANs.
D. Separate nodes into different switches.
E. All of the above.
Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Controlling broadcast propagation throughout the network is important to reduce the amount of overhead associated with these frames. Routers, which operate at Layer 3 of the OSI model, provide broadcast domain segmentation for each interface. Switches can also provide broadcast domain segmentation using virtual LANs (VLANs). A VLAN is a group of switch ports, within a single or multiple switches, that is defined by the switch hardware and/or software as a single broadcast domain. A VLANs goal is to group devices connected to a switch into logical broadcast domains to control the effect that broadcasts have on other connected devices. A VLAN can be characterized as a logical network. Reference: Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (Cisco Press) page 8
QUESTION 15
In the three-layer hierarchical network design model; what’s associated with the access layer? (Select two)
A. optimized transport structure
B. high port density
C. boundary definition
D. data encryption
E. local VLANs
F. route summaries
Correct Answer: BE Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The access layer is the outermost layer, and it is composed of the least sophisticated network equipment.
The most important function of the access layer is high port density, since these devices connect the
individual end users. The access layers are also where VLANs are implemented, since VLANs are
assigned on a per-port basis.

QUESTION 16
In the three-layer hierarchical network design model, what’s associated with the core layer? (Select two)
A. Access control list
B. Data encryption
C. Optimized transport
D. Address aggregation
E. Packet switching
F. Boundary definition
Correct Answer: CE Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: A hierarchical network design includes the following three layers: -The backbone (core) layer that provides optimal transport between sites -The distribution layer that provides policy-based connectivity -The local-access layer that provides workgroup/user access to the network The distribution layer of the network is the demarcation point between the access and core layers and helps to define and differentiate the core. The purpose of this layer is to provide boundary definition and is the place at which packet manipulation can take place. In the campus environment, the distribution layer can include several functions, such as the following: Address or area aggregation
1.
Departmental or workgroup access

2.
Broadcast/multicast domain definition

3.
Virtual LAN (VLAN) routing

4.
Any media transitions that need to occur

5.
Security The distribution layer can be summarized as the layer that provides policy-based connectivity Reference: www.alteridem.net/networking/idg4/idgbasic.htm
QUESTION 17
Two Certkiller switches are connected as shown below:

Configuration exhibit Please refer to the exhibit above. Given the partial configuration of the two Cisco Certkiller switches, which two statements are true about VLAN traffic? (Select two)

A. VLANs 1-5 will be blocked if fa0/10 goes down.
B. VLANs 6-10 will use fa0/10 as a backup only.
C. VLANs 1-5 will use fa0/10 as a backup only.
D. VLANs 6-10 have a port priority of 128 on fa0/10.
E. VLANs 1-10 are configured to load share between fa0/10 and fa0/12.

Correct Answer: BE Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) is a Layer 2 protocol that utilizes a special-purpose algorithm to discover physical loops in a network and effect a logical loop-free topology. STP creates a loop-free tree structure consisting of leaves and branches that span the entire Layer 2 network. The actual mechanics of how bridges communicate and how the STP algorithm works will be discussed at length in the following topics. Note that the terms bridge and switch are used interchangeably when discussing STP. In addition, unless otherwise indicated, connections between switches are assumed to be trunks. Load sharing can be accomplished using a couple of methods. The most common method of load sharing is through root bridge placement on a per-VLAN basis. This will distribute traffic for separate VLANs across separate paths to different root bridges. A separate method divides the bandwidth supplied by parallel trunks connecting switches. To avoid loops, STP normally blocks all but one parallel link between switches. Using load sharing, traffic can be divided between the links according to which VLAN the traffic belongs. Load sharing can be configured on trunk ports by using STP port priorities or STP path costs. For load sharing using STP port priorities, both load-sharing links must be connected to the same switch. For load sharing using STP path costs, each load-sharing link can be connected to the same switch or to two different switches. Load Sharing Using STP Port Priorities When two ports on the same switch form a loop, the STP port priority setting determines which port is enabled and which port is in a blocking state. The priorities on a parallel trunk port can be set so that the port carries all the traffic for a given VLAN. The trunk port with the higher priority (lower values) for a VLAN is forwarding traffic for that VLAN. The trunk port with the lower priority (higher values) for the same VLAN remains in a Blocking state for that VLAN. One trunk port sends or receives all traffic for the VLAN.
QUESTION 18
SIMULATION
Certkiller topology exhibit:
You work as a network engineer at Certkiller .com. Certkiller .com is a large international company with offices on all continents. You work at the Chicago Office. Your boss at Certkiller .com, Miss Certkiller, has asked you to install a
Catalyst 3500 to provide for another 24 users. Your instructions are as follows:
*
install it in an IDF

*
extremely import to have the proper configuration of the Catalyst before it is placed into the product information

*
it should not participate in VTP

*
it should forward VTP advertisements that are received on trunk ports

*
all nontrunking interfaces, Fa0/1 to Fa0/24) should immediately to the forwarding state of the Spanning tree.

*
configure all Fast Ethernet ports (the user ports) such as they are nontrunking.

*
the fastEthernet interfaces 0/12 through 0/24 should be placed in VLAN 20
Explanation: Certkiller 1#conf t Certkiller 1(config)#vtp mode transparent Certkiller 1(config)#interface range fa0/1 – 24 Certkiller 1(config-if-range)#switchport mode access Certkiller 1(config-if-range)#spanning-tree portfast Certkiller 1(config)#interface range fa0/12 – 24 Certkiller 1(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 20 Certkiller 1(config-if-range)#end Certkiller 1# copy run start Spanning tree PortFast is a Catalyst feature that causes a switch or trunk port to enter the spanning tree Forwarding state immediately, bypassing the Listening and Learning states. IOS-based switches only use PortFast on access ports connected to end stations. When a device is connected to a port, the port normally enters the spanning tree Listening state. When the Forward Delay timer expires, the port enters the Learning state. When the Forward Delay timer expires a second time, the port is transitioned to the Forwarding or Blocking state. When PortFast is enabled on a switch or trunk port, the port is immediately transitioned to the Forwarding state. As soon as the switch detects the link, the port is transitioned to the Forwarding state (less than 2 seconds after the cable is plugged in). Certkiller 1(Config-if-range)#switchport mode access : Brings the interfaces into access mode Certkiller 1 (Config-if-range)#spanning-tree portfast : Enables the PortFast on interface. Certkiller 1(Config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 20 : Makes the members of vlan 20
A.
B.
C.
D.
Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 19
The following output was seen on a Certkiller switch: Study the exhibit carefully. The Certkiller user who is connected to interface FastEthernet 0/1 is on VLAN 10 and cannot access network resources. On the basis of the information in the exhibit, which command sequence would correct the problem?

A. Certkiller 1(config)# vlan 10 Certkiller 1(config-vlan)# no shut
B. Certkiller 1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/1 Certkiller 1(config-if)# switchport mode access Certkiller 1(config-if)# switchport access vlan 10
C. Certkiller 1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/1 Certkiller 1(config-if)# switchport mode access
D. Certkiller 1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/1 Certkiller 1(config-if)# no shut
E. Certkiller 1(config)# vlan 10 Certkiller 1(config-vlan)# state active

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: In Exhibit Operation Mode is down, it means interface is in down state. Just bring into up state using no shutdown command
QUESTION 20
You need make configuration changes to an existing layer 3 switch in the Certkiller network. On a multilayer Catalyst switch, which interface command is used to convert a Layer 3 interface to a Layer 2 interface?
A. switchport access vlan vlan-id
B. switchport
C. switchport mode access
D. no switchport
E. None of the above
Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The switchport command puts the port in Layer 2 mode. Then, you can use other switchport command
keywords to configure trunking, access VLANs, and so on.

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